ABU RAIHAN MUHAMMAD AL-BERUNI (973-1048 C.E.)
Al-Beruni was an outstanding astronomer, mathematician, physicist, Physician, geographer, geologist and historian. According to Max Meyerhoff, Al-Beruni is perhaps the most prominent figure in the group of those universally learned Muslim scholars who characterize the Golden Age of Islamic Science. His great contributions in so many diverse fields earned him the title "al-Ustadh," the Master or Professor par excellence. Some historians have called the period of his activity as "The Age of Al-Beruni." Al-Beruni's contributions are so extensive that an index of his written works covers more than sixty pages. His scientific work combined with contributions of Al-Haitham (Al-Hazen) and other Muslim scientists laid down the early foundation of modern science. Prominent Contributions: He discovered seven different ways of finding the direction of the north and south, and discovered mathematical techniques to determine exactly the beginnings of the season. He also wrote about the sun and its movements and the eclipse. In addition, he invented few astronomical instruments. Many centuries before the rest of the world, Al-Beruni discussed that the earth rotated on its axis and made accurate calculations of latitude and longitude. These observations are contained in his book "Al-Athar Al-Baqia." He wrote a treatise on timekeeping in 1000 C.E. Al-Beruni was a true Muslim Scientist who benefitted from both the Islamic guidance and scientific investigations. He said: "My experience in the study of astronomy and geometry and experiments in physics revealed to me that there must be a Planning Mind of Unlimited Power. My discoveries in Astronomy showed that there are fantastic intricacies in the universe which prove that there is a creative system and a meticulous control that cannot be explained through sheer physical and material causes."
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